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Friday, November 15, 2013

PRAKTIKUM'S REPORTING RANCH DEVELOPMENT

I.   FOREWORD


   1.1  Background

Chicken broiler is cock type and also surrounding old young female 6 – 8 maintained week intensively, utilised get optimal flesh. Sighted from quality facet, flesh chickening to have tall nutrient point than breeding another. And if is sighted from economic facet, notably chicken race cuts or country chicken already popular with the title broiler this, constituting country chicken that can be laboured efficiently and quick deep cropping. 
Until currently, broiler's poultry effort constitutes one of the most activity expeditious to result hewani's food material that quality and well worth tall nutrient. Its causation a few things for example, faster chicken growth rate as compared to another breed trade goods, about capital which smaller relative, farm purpose that not very extent and the need and society consciousness increases will its nutrient content. So this condition strove for marks sense penyediaan chicken flesh that adequately, well of quality and also amount facet. 

1.2  To the effect

1.      To know chicken preserve trick broiler
2.      To increase broiler's chicken productivity
3.      To apply knowledge already being studied

1.3  Time and Place

Praktikum about Fowl ranch development is done on tuesday, tangal 10th April 2012 at Experimental Farm, General Country university Soedirman.

II. PRAKTIKUM'S METHOD

  2.1 Material

     2.1. 1 Tool:             1. stationery
                                    2. questionnaire
     2.1. 2 Materials:      fowl breed

2.2 Methods

     1. make ready stationery and questionnaire,
     2. gather needed data at deep questionnaire by asks to that ranch organizer.
     3. write interview result of organizer party goes to questionnaire and observe.
     4. ask as fledged as maybe.

 III. REVIEW LIBRARY 

According to Zainal Abidin (2002) den constitutes life place, place gets production, and functioning to protect chicken of beast trouble, protecting chicken of out of all patience weather, drawing the line chicken stirred room, avoiding chicken forfeit jeopardy, memper is easily observation, weft and drinking water application, and health preserve and disease prevention. 
According to Fadilah (2004), broiler is winged breeding type of aves's class already didomestikasikan and its way of living managed by man with intent to assign value economic deep shaped flesh.
According to Rasyaf (1992) broiler is cock and old young hen under 6 week while sold by given body wights, having fast one growth, and broad chest with flesh pile that there are many. There are many strain maintained broiler at Indonesia.
According to Wahju (1992), broiler ration consumption clings to ration energy content, strain, age, activity, and environment temperature.
            According to Anggrodi (1994), add that breeding fiat in digest crude fiber depends of digestive tool type that proprietary by breeding that and overchanging too of microorganism that exists in digestive tool. 

  IV. RESULT AND STUDY

4.1 Result

                   a.      CORPORATE ID
Name                           : Experimental farm
Address                                   : Karangwangkal's village purwokerto's district
Effort type                  : Commerces Chicken breed Pedaging
History forming          : 2006
Organization chart      :    Coordinator                        : Arteka Rosiada
                                       Secretary                  : Faiz Alwi Yusuf
                                       Bursar                       : Frendita QueenRendy
                                       Manager Logistic     : Wigih Yodya
                                       Manager is Personnel           : Aang Burhanudin
                                       Manager is hygiene: Danu Purwanto
                                       Manager is equipment          : Aziz is Moslem

                b.      BREED AND MANAGEMENT
1.      Total breed: 3000
2.      Acquisition seed:
a.       Seed that is utilized : LH 500
b.      Origin Stocks Down                                    : Malindo
c.       Price a Seed             : Rp. 4000 / number
d.      sexing Utilizes          : of firm
b. WEFT
1.      Weft that is utilized           : complete, starter and finisher
2.      Nutrient content                 : protein 21%, fiber 4%, water 13%, abu6%, calcium 0,9 -      1,1%, pospor 0,7 - 0,9%
3.      Wefts material origin                      : Malindo
4.      Wefts material price                       : Rp's starter. 5800 and finisher Rp. 5750
1.      Den 

2.      Type Thatches                                : Monitor
3.      Den floor type        : slat

c. ECONOMIC COUNT
1.      Den makings cost and tool      : Rp. 50. 000. 000,-
2.      Resistance                                           : 10 years
3.      Final price                                            : Rp. 5. 000. 000,-
4.      Labour cost                             : Rp. 200,-/number
5.      Brooder's cost and lighting     : Rp 1.000.000,-
6.      Weft cost                                             : Rp. 58. 000. 000,-
7.      Vaccine cost and obatan                     : Rp. 1. 500. 000,-
8.      Any other – other                                            : Rp's den wash. 200. 000,-


4.2 Studies
broiler's chicken constitutes one of foodstuff which behoof to help protein requirement accomplishment hewani. In this chicken preserve needful a lot of preparation which is for example
o   Quality Stocks Down
o   Preserve system
o   Weft and Drink
o   About den
o   Preserve management
o   Disease
o   Vaccination and invulnerability
Ø  Quality Stocks Down
There are many poultry effort success begins from good seed quality. Chicken seed to be chosen of source that is believed most free of disease sort and its seed quality lovely corresponds to default each strain.
Marking stocks down qualified broiler chicken can see to base its extern performance in common, There are several guidance technicaling to choose DOC'S seed, which is:
·         Free of disease, particularly diseased pullorum, omphalitis, and xylariaceae.
·         Come from ripe parent aged and from pembibitan is experienced.
·         Looked chicken seed active, sunny eye, and lively.
·         Having invulnerability of tall parent.
·         Big foot and wet as greasy as.
·         Sunny fur, are not hazy, and full.
·         Anus is clear, no filth or white paste.
·         Normal body situation.
·         Body weight appropriate default strain , usually above 37 grams.
·         No letakan excrement at its anus.
Ø   Preserve system
Sunday First (1st day 7). Curse / DOC was carried over by indukan or heating, shortly been given warming drinking water that added by POC NASA with dosed 1 2 cc / drinking water liter or viterna is pluses with dosed 1 cc / drinking water liter / day and sugar to substitute lost energy up to transportation. Weft can be given by requirement per tail 13 gr or 1,3 kg to 100 chickens. Total that is minimal requirement, on its practice unconfined application. Weft that is given in the early preserve gets to form little items (crumbles). 
Ø   Weft and Drinking Water application
Weft application on starter period chick until finisher did by ad libitum's method, which is weft application method by eating chicken one please or not circumscribed. Weft place that is utilized at the age 0 7 days gets tray forms. Chick weft application until age 1 week is done one often may ± 6 8 times / day depend are gone wefts in chick feeder tray. After chicken old 7 days weft place those are utilized partly been substituted by weft place that gets domed form and be hung (hanging feeder). According to Abibin (2002) a high weft place and 2–2's drinking water place,5 cm upon surface hinder chicken. Weft place capacity 1 numbers for 20 25 chickens. 
Marginally, alimentary substance substance that needed chicken consisting of protein, energy, vitamin, mineral, and water.  
·         Protein constitutes affiliate of amino acid. This protein is beneficent to build body network a new one, replacing gangrene parts, formation body fluid, formation fur. Foodstuff that constitute protein source, e.g. fish meal, insect, flesh oddment, coconut oil cake, bean oil cake etc..
·         Second alimentary substance that momentous is energy. Energy this was needed for all activity, for example for heart beat, passing round blood, and chicken ability walks.
In contrast to protein, therefore if luxuriant energy will be kept deep shaped fat. Foodstuff that constitute source energy is bran oil, bean oil cake, coconut oil cake, etc..
·         Water constitutes a part greatest of creature body, such even with chicken. Foodstuff also contains largely water. Through chicken acquired water three tricks which is water which are drunk, water that lies in food, and metabolis's water. 
Of all alimentary substance with its source materials named by ration. So ration savvy is mixed foodstuff to meet the need will alimentary substance substance that poised and correct (Sastrapradja, 1980).
  Application drinks to be adjusted by dangan chicken age, in this case is agglomerated deep 2 (two) phase which is:
a.       Starter phase (age 1 29 days) drinking water requirement most subdivides on each week, which is 1st week (1 - 7 days) 1,8 lliter / days / 100 number; Sunday 2nd (8 - 14 days) 3,1 liter / day / 100 number; Sunday 3rd (15 - 21 days) 4,5 liters / days / 100 number and Sunday 4th (22 - 29 days) 7,7 liters / days / tails.
So needed drinking water amount until aged 4 week are as much 122,6 liters / 100 number. Drinking water application on day one of ought to been given sugar and doctor affix anti stress into its drinking water. A lot of it sugar that is given is 50 grams / water liters.
b.      finisher's phase (age 30 57 days), most deep group week which is 5th week (30 - 36 days) 9,5 lliter / days / 100 number; Sunday 6th (37 - 43 days) 10,9 liters / days / 100 number; Sunday 7th (44 - 50 days) 12,7 liters / days / 100 number and Sunday 8th (51 - 57 days) 14,1 liter / day / tail. So totaled drinking water 30 57 days as much 333,4 liters / days / tails. 
Ø  About den
Before chicken preserve activity happens, earlier den and equipment who will utilize to have is gotten things square with every consideration. To the effect of preparation this den is alone which is to give cozy taste on chicken while chicken begins to come in, and so most dodge of disease trouble. 
Cleansing of roof and den floor is done after chicken cropping is finished. Cleansing of roof did by dusts off and cobweb that is at den ceiling by use of long-handled sweep. Cleansing of floor began by menyemprotkan water goes to floor surface then be idled up to few hours, with that aim filth what does stick gets squashy cleaned. After been idled up to few hours, floor is rubbed by use of mop which breeched while sprayed by water until clean slate.  
Den type bases its floor be divided as three kinds which is: 1 ) dens with liter floor, this den made by floor that coated by bran, gore / paddy and den chaff this generally been applied on colony system den; 2 ) dens with kolong's floor punctured, floor for its system consisting of assistive or timbered kaso with holes amongst those, one that its following to discard chicken excrement and direct goes to relocation place; 3 ) dens with liters mixed floor with kolong punctured, with compare 40% den floor extents for shod liter and 60% floor extent with kolong punctured (consisting of 30% at right and 30% at left).
 (Rasyaf, 1994)
Ø  Preserve management
Preserve management also so ascendant to body weight fowl. Therefore, a cattleman has to gain control fowl preserve system of system about den until its registry system. Bad management will cause body weight debauched. 
  Disease
There is disease kinds of in broiler's chicken preserve, for example:
1. Defecate white (pullorum)
    Attacking kampong chicken with tall mortality.
    Cause of: Salmonella pullorum.
    Operation: dosed with by antibiotic
2. Foel typhoid
               Target that at often is spring chicken / stripling and full age.
               Cause of: Salmonella gallinarum.
               Phenomena: chicken issues color excrement chartreuse.
               Operation: with antibiotic / preparat sulfa.
3. Parathyphoid
               Attacking under-aged chicken a one month.
               Cause of: bacteria of Salmonella's gender.
               Operation: with preparat sulfa / doctor a sort it.
4. Cholera
               This disease sparse attacks chick or stripling chicken but besides attack
     chicken attacks turkey and dove.
               Cause of: pasteurella multocida.
               Phenomena: on serious attack on dewlap will dilate.
Operation: with antibiotic (Tetrasiklin / is Streptomycin).
5. Chicken head cold (Coryza)
               Attack all chicken age and particularly attacks chick.
               Cause of: intermediet's creature among bacteria and virus.
               Phenomena: chicken that attacking to point out auspices as person of head cold.
               Operation: can be cured by antibiotia / preparat sulfa.
6. CRD
               CRD is popular pip at Indonesia. 
    Attacking chick and stripling chicken. 
Operation: done by antibiotic (Spiramisin and Tilosin).
7. synovitis's infection
               This disease is frequent attack spring chicken especially chicken broiler and turkey.
               Cause of: bacteria of Mycoplasma's gender.
               Operation: with antibiotic.

Ø  Vaccination and invulnerability
Formed invulnerability by chicken body available two which is invulnerability humoral or comprehensive, whereabouts immune substance available deep streaming blood and local invulnerability with invulnerable substance to be gotten on body part that has once attacked by disease. Local invulnerability can constitute weapon to face diseased seed attack. But, its ability just gets to kill disease seed at place whereabouts available substance ties, e.g. at respiratory tract, therefore infection don't happen on that respiratory tract. While, on the other body part that has no immune substance, enable most flat stocks down disease.
Vaccine constitutes diseased seed microorganism already be sapped virulensinya or is switched off and if is given on breed doesn't evoke disease but gets to stimulate substance forming ties that according to its vaccine type. Be vaccination constitutes action insert vaccine into breeding body and constituting an effort with intent protect breed to given diseased attack. For cattleman, vaccination has constituted routine activity in its ranch effort, vaccination that done by cattleman by eye drop, nose drop, drinking water and spray will stimulate chicken body to form local invulnerability, meanwhile vaccination performing with hypodermic or injection will stimulate humoral's invulnerability forming or comprehensive. 

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